CTC-310: Homeopathic Product Information

CTC-310- crotalus durissus terrificus venom and cardiotoxin iii injection, solution
Celtic Biotech Iowa, Inc.

Disclaimer: This homeopathic product has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration for safety or efficacy. FDA is not aware of scientific evidence to support homeopathy as effective.


CTC-310 is a liquid for injection formula comprising a 1:1 combination of Crotoxin and Cardiotoxin

Crotoxin preparations are made from the venom of the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

Cardiotoxin preparations are made from the venom of the Asian cobra Naja naja.

They are homeopathic formulations that include sterile injectables for intravenous and subcutaneous use.


According to the FDA reference text “Clarkes’ Materia Medica 1900”;

Crotalus venom preparations are indicated as homeopathic medications for numerous conditions but especially; Cancers. Tongue, inflammation of ; cancer of. Clinical experience shows that Crotoxin also provide relief from some forms of pain.

Cobra venom preparations are indicated as homeopathic medications for several conditions but especially for; angina faucium, angina pectoris, asthma, dysmenia (painful menses), grief (depression), headache (migraine), pain in ovaries (ovarian cysts), spinal irritation (back pain) and sore throat. Cardiotoxin is the principal active analgesic component.




The principal active components in both venoms are cytotoxins. Crotoxin (CT) is a pre-synaptic bi-partite beta-neurotoxin with phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. Evaluation by the Developmental Therapeutics Program of the National Cancer Institute (NSC 624244) for cytotoxicity in vitro against a panel of human tumour cell lines showed enhanced cytotoxicity towards melanoma, CNS and non-small cell lung cancer lines. Toxin-phospholipid interaction and subsequent accumulation of products of phospholipid hydrolysis in the membrane may alter membrane packing, disrupt lipid domains and affect protein conformation resulting in effects like inhibition of type II Ca2+ channels or alteration of transmembrane signaling pathways. Current thought suggests that CT binds to the upregulated Crocalbin that is upregulated in malignant cells. The Nicotinic Acetylcholine receptor is also upregulated in tumor cell lines and have been clearly identified as having a role in proliferation especially in lung cancer and CNS tumors – tumor populations with high sensitivity to CT. The released PLA2 produces arachidonic acid at the membrane surface that activates protein kinase C (PKC) and possibly other tyrosine kinases. PKC in turn phosphorylates endogenous caspases and the activated caspases initiate the process of programmed cell death.

The main pharmacological target for Cardiotoxin has not been clearly identified though it has been shown to target heparin sulphate-glyco proteins. Cardiotoxins (CD) have a number of pharmacological properties in intact tissues including hemolysis, cytolysis, contractures of muscle, membrane depolarization and activation of tissue phospholipase C and, to a far lesser extent, an arachidonic acid-associated phospholipase A2. The toxins have also been demonstrated to open the Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor) and alter the activity of the Ca2+ +Mg2+ -ATPase in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum preparations derived from cardiac or skeletal muscle. However, a relationship of these actions in isolated organelles to contracture induction has not yet been established. The toxins also bind to and, in some cases, alter the function of a number of other proteins in disrupted tissues. The most difficult tasks in understanding the mechanism of action of these toxins have been dissociating the primary from secondary effects and distinguishing between effects that only occur in disrupted tissues and those that occur in intact tissue.


Both actives exert potent cytolytic activities in-vitro. Tissue culture studies were performed using murine and human tumour cell lines. The responses are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1: Comparison of cytotoxicity of CT, CD, and VRCTC-310
Panel LC50 mg/ml Theoretical Additive LC50 Potent. (factor)
Leukemia 43.6 6.3 7.2 11.0 (1.5)
Non Small Cell Lung 12.7 3.9 5.0 6.0 (1.2)
Small Cell Lung 30.1 1.15 3.9 2.2
Colon 74.9 22.4 36.4 34.5
Central Nervous System 7.5 2.2 2.1 3.4 (1.6)
Melanoma 7.6 1.86 2.8 3.0
Ovaria 21.0 5.4 7.3 8.6 (1.2)
Renal 10.1 3.2 5.4 4.9

Prior data showed that CT-induced cytotoxic effects appeared to be highly selective toward cell lines expressing an upregulated density of Epidermal-like Growth Factor receptors, though CT appeared to unexpectedly promote EGFR phosphorylation. Enhanced EGFR activity in cancer cells and tumors is associated with increased growth, survival and angiogenesis of tumors. CT stimulated phosphorylation of the EGFR is a cellular response to the induction of apoptosis.

CD has poor anti-tumor effect in-vivo but it has recently been discovered the CD can block this rescue mechanism thereby enhancing the cytocidal activity. CD induces apoptosis in adeno-carcinoma A549 cells, as indicated by an increase in the sub-G(1) population, phosphatidyl-serine externalization, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Psi(m)) with cytochrome c release and activation of caspases 9 and 3. The signal transduction pathways involved in the effects of CD in A549 cells were evaluated and the results indicated that CD suppresses phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/Akt and Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, all of which are downstream molecules in the EGFR signaling pathway. Additional testing suggested that PI3-K is an upstream activator of JAK2/STAT3. Together, the results of the study indicated that CD induces apoptosis in A549 cells by inactivating the EGFR, PI3-K/Akt and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways. Similar data was observed for MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, a highly metastatic human breast carcinoma cell line in addition to the inhibition of metastasis.

In wound-healing assay, the cell migration of oral squamous cells (Ca9-22 cells) was attenuated by CD in a dose- and time-responsive manner. After CD treatment, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions were downregulated, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38-MAPK was increased independent of ERK phosphorylation. It was determined that CD also has antiproliferative and -migrating effects on oral cancer cells involving the p38-MAPK and MMP-2/-9 pathways.

Secondary Pharmacology

CT can produce flaccid paralysis and death due to paralysis of respiratory muscles. Artificial respiration can keep the animals alive and, provided that the dose is not higher than 1.5 LD50 , is followed by recovery. CD is a basic amphipathic peptide of relatively weak lethal toxicity when administered by the i.m. route (LD50 i.m. in mice 52 mg/kg; in rats 65 mg/kg). Strangely, when CT and CD are combined the toxic effects of CT are significantly reduces through an unknown mechanism. Additionally, CT has been reported to exert anti-viral activity which is thought to use a mechanism similar to the anti-tumor pathways.

Animal studies showed that CT administered by parenteral injection exhibited a dose-dependent analgesic action in mice using hot plate test and acetic acid-writhing test. The peak effect of CT analgesia was seen 3 h after its’ administration (in contrast to its pharmacokinetics). CT had significant analgesic action in rat tail-flick test. In the mouse acetic acid-writhing test, intra-cerebral ventricle administration of CT also produced marked analgesic effects. Atropine at 0.5 mg/kg (im) or 10 mg/kg (ip) or Naloxone at 3 mg/kg (ip) failed to block the analgesic effects of Crotoxin. In animal models of neuropathic pain induced by rat sciatic nerve transaction, it was revealed that CT has prolonged activity persisting for up to 64 days. It was found that the analgesia was mediated by activation of central muscarinic receptors and partially, by activation of alpha-adrenoceptors and 5-HT receptors.

CD’s antiproliferative activity is exerted through mechanisms associated with inflammatory activity so it is consistent that CD exhibits analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. CD has been shown to be effective in animal models of acute, chronic and neuropathic pain including rheumatoid arthritis. It has also be found be orally bioavailable. It is reported to ameliorate kidney injury in several CKD animal models and potentiates the release of insulin from pancreatic cells.

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